Monday, January 27, 2020
Effect of Community Care on Needs of Service Users Community Care Introduction Foster and Roberts (1998, p. i) indicate that there are deficiencies in Ã¢â¬ ¦ the Ã¢â¬ËtriangularÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship between user, carer an communityÃ¢â¬ . They point out that there is a Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦common tendency to establish a two-way relationship, and disregard the perspective of the third party Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ which Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦obstructs the healthy functioning of the care systemÃ¢â¬ (Foster and Roberts, 1998, p.i). Booker and Repper (1998, p. 4) expound upon the preceding in adding that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ community living is particularly difficult for people who have serious mental illness, many of whom experience frequent re-admissions in times of crisis and survive inadequately: in poverty and isolation, without work, with poor social supports and networks, and at risk of victimisation, exploitation, homelessness and imprisonmentÃ¢â¬ . They add that Ã¢â¬Å"Indeed the community tenure of this population is often dependent upon the support of informal carers who ine vitably have problems and needs themselvesÃ¢â¬ Booker and Repper, 1998, p. 4). The foregoing points to valid issues brought out regarding the community care system that indicate need further examination, and which represents the focus of this examination. Such asks the question, Ã¢â¬Ëto what extent is current community care policy and practice responsive to the needs and concerns of service users and carers? The preceding represents an expansive discussion. In order to formulate a balanced assessment of these aspects, this examination shall seek to break down the context into the three frameworks as indicated by Foster and Roberts (1998, p. i), and examine key policy frameworks, and practice developments representing the four specific areas of disability, health, mental health and older people in community care. In said examination, this study shall consider the extent to which policy and practice has been shaped by factors other than the needs and concerns of service users and carers. In a study conducted by the Hull Community Care Development Project over a three year period, it found that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ care and support issues have been largely neglected in area-based workÃ¢â¬ (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, 2004). The following shall seek to reach a determination if that assessment is true in terms of the four areas identified, disability, health, mental health and older people. Community Care represents the help as well as support that is provided to individuals that aids them in being able to live either in their own homes, or in a home type setting in their community (careline.org.uk, 2007). The foregoing assistance can consist of representing help for the individual that needs the aid to live in the community as well as help and or assistance for the carer. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s policy on community care sets forth six key objectives (careline.org.uk, 2007). The first represents the providing of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ home care, day and respite services Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ that enables individuals, wherever feasible as well as possible, to live in their own homes (careline.org.uk, 2007). Secondly, it entails the making of a proper assessment concerning Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ need and good care management Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ which represents Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ cornerstone of high quality careÃ¢â¬ (careline.org.uk, 2007). The third area represents the promoting and Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ t he development of a flourishing independent sector alongside good quality servicesÃ¢â¬ (careline.org.uk, 2007). The fourth element consists of the clarification of responsibilities to thus make it easier to hold the various agencies accountable for their performance (careline.org.uk, 2007). The fifth aspect represents, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ to secure better value Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ for expenditures as a result of the introduction of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ new funding structures for social careÃ¢â¬ (careline.org.uk, 2007). With the last area, sixth, representing the providing of Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ additional help for carers Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ as well as offering a choice for patients and the general public (careline.org.uk, 2007). Community Care services are available to support older people, individual with physical disabilities, learning disabilities, mental health problems and chronic illness (careline.org.uk, 2007). The services that are available, which can differ slightly in some areas, basically consist of 1). Home care, that includes assistance with washing and dressing, 2) meals on wheels and frozen meals, 3) equipment as well as various adaptations to make living at home an easier prospect, 4) Day care centers that contain helpful activities, 5) respite services, 6) supported housing for individuals that with mental health and or disabilities. 7) intermediate care, 8) practical as well as financial assistance, 9) community nursing, 10) incontinence as well as NHS supplied nursing equipment (careline.org.uk, 2007). Community Care Policy The National Health Service and Community Care Act of 1990, that was phased into operation over a three year period, established a system whereby the needs of individuals were assessed entailing an agreed upon care plan, assigned worker and regular progress reviews (BBC News, 1998). Part of the procedural aspects of the foregoing was identifying those individuals whom might represent a significant risk, either to themselves and or others (BBC News, 1998). Those so identified where placed onto a Ã¢â¬ËSupervision RegisterÃ¢â¬â¢ to prevent them from Ã¢â¬Ëslipping through the netÃ¢â¬â¢, which of course did not, and has not proven full proof (BBC News, 1998). The purpose of the National Health Service and Community Care Act of 1990 was to Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ split health and social care provision between purchasers and providers to create an internal marketÃ¢â¬ (Leathard, A., 2003, p. 16). This approach represented a means Ã¢â¬Å"To curb costs, purchasers were required to assess nee ds, while providers were intended to compete against each other to secure contracts from the purchasersÃ¢â¬ (Leathard, A., 2003, p. 16). The foregoing represented efficiency from the standpoint of governmental administration, however, it shortchanged the ends users, and the patients, in that it immersed them into a bidding supply system that did not place their needs and concerns upper most in the hierarchy. Leathard (2003, p. 16) states that the preceding Ã¢â¬Å"The split between purchasers and providers, as well as the competition between the providers themselves, led to fragmentation of services but a collaborative momentum began to build up between the purchasersÃ¢â¬ . Important in the foregoing, is the understanding that the methodology provided the District Authorities with the power to purchase hospital care, and the family health service authorities had the responsibility Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦for services provided by GPs, pharmacists, dentists and opticians, while local authorities covered the purchasing of all social services in the communityÃ¢â¬ (Leathard, A., 2003, p. 18). The Secretary of the Central Association for Mental Welfare, Evelyn Fox, in 1930 stated the pure view of community care was one that has seemingly gotten lost in the translation to practice, (Fox, 1930, p. 71): Ã¢â¬Å"Community Care should vary from the giving of purely friendly advice and help to the various forms of state guardianship with compulsory power . . . It should include the power of affording every kind of assistance to the defective boarding out, maintenance grants, the provision of tools, travelling expenses to and from work, of temporary care, change of air in a word, all those things which will enable a defective to remain safely in his family . . . If the state has undertaken the duty and responsibility of active interference in the life of an individual by supervision, compulsory attention and so forth, it must undertake the corresponding duty of making his life as happy as possible. The effective control of a defective at home does inevitably mean a restriction in his complete freedom to go in and out as he pleases, to make what friends he chooses, to select what type of employment he likes out of those that are open to him. To impose these limitations without at the same time giving compensating interests is to court disasterÃ¢â¬ . Her statement, which has validity today, saw the family at the centre of community care. In fact, her view was that families should be co-opted to supply effective control (Fox, 1930, p. 73). The policy statements thus far put into action have tended to favour the carers more than the service users, which is shown by the following. The NHS and Community Care Act 1990 is based upon the Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ triumvirate of autonomy, empowerment and choice (Levick, 1992, pp. 76-81). Smart, 2002, p. 102) as well as Biggs and Powell (2000, pp. 41-49) both state that the Ã¢â¬ËActÃ¢â¬â¢ has a major weaknesses in that it fails to account for any critical analysis concerning the role as well as daily practices of care managers. Clements (2000) provides a critical observation in stating that community care law bears the indelible stamp of its poor origins and that the present shape still resembles Beveridges vision of the welfare state. Care in the Community was a policy of the Margaret Thatcher government in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s whereby she questioned the existence of society and sought via the NHS as well as the Community Care Act 1990 to extend the privatisation agenda into health and community care through the creation of NHS trusts, the greater use of independent residential and nursing homes, and the general promotion of the mixed economy of care (reference.com, 2007). The preceding represented the second shift in the community care / health care approach. The third shift occurred under Section 6 of the Human Rights Act 1998 which casts the definition of a public authority as Ã¢â¬Å"to embrace any person some of whose functions are of a public natureÃ¢â¬ (Bacigalupo et al, 2002, p. 249). The preceding continues Ã¢â¬Å"The expansive nature of this concept was explained by the Lord Chancellor who stated that the key question is whether the body in question has functions of a public nature Ã¢â¬ ¦ If it has any functions of a public nature, it qualifies as a public autho rityÃ¢â¬ (Bacigalupo et al, 2002, p. 249). The foregoing means that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ private community care providers as represented by residential care home owners, and or voluntary sector service providers such as Age Concern, MIND or housing associations are public authorities in relation to anyone for whom they provide publicly funded careÃ¢â¬ (Bacigalupo et al, 2002, p. 249). They continue that Ã¢â¬Å"Such providers now shoulder public responsibilities for their vulnerable clients and are accountable in public law for their actionsÃ¢â¬ (Bacigalupo et al, 2002, p. 249). The Department of Health has accordingly emphasised the need for English social services departments to ensure that contractors and independent providers are made aware of their new dutiesÃ¢â¬ (Bacigalupo et al, 2002, p. 249). Under Article number 2 of the Act, which relates to policy for the Community Care Act 1990, it requires that the government and local authorities take reasonable measures to protect life (Bacigalupo et al, 2002, p. 249). Studi es conducted by the Times (1994) found that relocating institutionalised elderly people to a new residence may have a dramatic effect on their mental health and life. A study by the Journal of American Geriatric Society (1994) indicated that mortality rates run as high as 35% in such instances. Service Users and Carer Perspectives Both aspects point out the fact that the system was not geared to the well being of the users. Further evidence of the foregoing was also expressed by Hardy et al (1999, pp. 483-491) who pointed out that the changes as brought forth in policy by the 1989 white paper Ã¢â¬ËCaring for PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act were to increase choices for users as well as carers. The preceding changes were as a result of the fact that service users had been subordinate to professional service providers (Hardy et al, 1999, pp. 483-491). In addition, their had also been an inherent bias of funding that was geared for residential and nursing care and that such had deprived service users of the choice of being cared for in their own homes (Hardy et al, 1999, pp. 483-491). This was expressed by Leathard (2003, p. 16) who stated, Ã¢â¬Å"The split between purchasers and providers, as well as the competition between the providers themselves, led to fragmentation of services but a collaborative momentum began to build up between the purchasersÃ¢â¬ . The preceding was a result of the efficiency the Act brought to community care which did not address the needs, wishes and concerns of the users as it put them into a bidding system that saved money, but resulted in poorer care. The foregoing included all four areas, disability patients, health patients, as well as mental health, and elderly patients who were caught in policy and practice developments. The Kings Fund Rehabilitation Programme (Hanford et al, 1999) addresses the foregoing deficiencies through policy initiatives based upon three themes, 1) working in partnership, 2) joint planning, and 3) commissioning. The preceding has been further developed through the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund updated statements on health and social care, in community based settings (KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, 2003). The combined initiatives have been devised to loosen governmental control and provide more accountability to patients and the local community (KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, 2003). Such a shift in policy will also affect hospitals as well as other what is termed as frontline providers to thus be more responsive to local needs and potentially improved performance (KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, 2003). The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (1999) pointed out that the primary responsibility for the improvement in health programmes, specifically with regard to community care, lies with the health authorities, The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (1999) also pointed out the however it is the local authorities that are expected to work out the objectives in improving the health and well being of their local communities. The initiatives put forth by the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (1999) (2003) have been designed and crafted to achieve these lends through streamlining of the policy and operational facets. An important aspect of the 1999 KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund initiative entailed calling for improved preventive services that called upon local authorities to aid users to take on as many tasks as they could for themselves for as long as they could, along with living in their own homes for as long as possible. The preceding was borne out of fiscal realities, in order to better conserve funds. However, in light of the findings of studies conducted by the London Times (1994) as well as the Journal of American Geriatric Society (1994) that found that elderly patients that were institutionalized had morality rates that ran as high as 35% in many instances, means that this approach had definitive merits beyond the saving of funds. The foregoing approach was based upon older policy documents by the government that reinforced the methodology of fostering greater independence. Such was put forth by the Department of Health that stated the promotion of independence would Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ have a positive effect on informal or unpaid carers Ã¢â¬ ¦ (KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, 1999). The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (1999) also pointed out under Ã¢â¬ËBest Value InitiativesÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ local authorities should reduce delays in providing housing adaptations as part of the general move towards increased accountability to local peopleÃ¢â¬ . The above recognizes the need as well as better care that users would and do receive from home based care that Evelyn Fox brought forth back in 1930. Her statement Ã¢â¬Å"If the state has undertaken the duty and responsibility of active interference in the life of an individual by supervision, compulsory attention and so forth, it must undertake the corresponding duty of making his life as happy as possibleÃ¢â¬ (Fox, 1930, p. 71). The initiatives of the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund helped to remove the stigma as indicated by Clements (2000), that community care law bears the indelible stamp of its poor origins and that the present shape still resembles BeveridgeÃ¢â¬â¢s vision of the welfare state. The initiative also addressed the observations of Smart, 2002, p. 102) as well as Biggs and Powell (2000, pp. 41-49) who both stated that the Ã¢â¬ËActÃ¢â¬â¢ had a major weaknesses in that it failed to account for any critical analysis concerning the role as well as daily practices of care ma nagers. Through promoting more in home care for as long as possible, signaled a change in direction. Policy changes as brought forth in 1997 resulted in the United Kingdom government issuing in June of each year a policy document informing the Health Authorities of their purchasing intentions for the following year (NHS Executive, 1996). Resulting there from were three sets of objectives: long-term objectives and policies; medium-term priorities and objectives for the 1997/98 year; and baseline requirements and objectives for 1997/98 year (NHS Executive, 1996). In the longer term, performance will be assessed under three headings: equity, efficiency, and responsiveness (NHS Executive, 1996, pp. 11-21). Under the 1997 New Labour reforms, Health Authorities are to be responsible for drawing up three-year Health Improvement Programmes, which are to be the framework within which all purchasers and providers operate (NHS Executive, 1996, pp. 11-21). Under Section 17 of the Health Act 1999 it accords wide powers to the Secretary of State to give directions to Health Authorities, Primary C are Trusts, and NHS Trusts. Prior to the 1997 New Labour proposals, monitoring efforts in the UKÃ¢â¬â¢s internal market concentrated on a small set of dimensions of output: annual growth in activity, waiting times, and targets for improvements in the health of certain groups of the population (Propper, 1995, pp. 1685). The foregoing is why the Health Authorities had focused on performance being monitored, but not the needs, desires and wishes of patients and carers. Changes in Direction The preceding facets were thus corrected under the indicated 1997 New Labour proposals promise to broaden performance measures to Ã¢â¬Å"things that count for patients, including the costs and results of treatment and careÃ¢â¬ (Department of Health, 2007). This represented the backbone of the indicated KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (2003) initiatives that have resulted in better patient and carer involvement. The Human Rights Act has had implications both for service users as well as carers in terms of re-focusing upon rights afforded them. It provides for them to have the right to life, the right to be free from inhuman and or degrading treatment, as well as the right to respect for private and family life (Carers UK, 2005). These aspects might seem as being basic rights that carers should have had all along. However, governmental surveys have shown that all too often the rights of carers are ignored and need to be balanced against the people they care for (Carers UK, 2005). The United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s National Strategy for Carers (Carers.UK, 2005) revealed, Ã¢â¬Å"carersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are not adequately consideredÃ¢â¬ . The preceding represents that under the Human Rights Act the rights of patients is balanced against the rights of the carer to mean that their views are considered by social services in the rendering of decisions. In addition, the research uncovered that all too frequently Ã¢â¬Å"carersÃ¢â¬â¢ rights are not realÃ¢â¬ (Carers.UK, 2005). The foregoing refers to assessments of carers regarding either their opinions and or rights as well as those expressed on behalf of their patients. Research conducted uncovered that carersÃ¢â¬â¢ all to frequently feel that their views and opinions are not considered in assessments and or decisions (Carers.UK, 2005). The third aspect of this facet represents the fact that carersÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as patients feel that Ã¢â¬Å"resources are inadequate to allow rights to be protectedÃ¢â¬ (Carers.UK, 2005). The foregoing refers to the services needed are in all too many instances not available as a result of resources that are inadequate in terms of the cost and or staff time (Carers.UK, 2005). The last aspects refer to Ã¢â¬Å"good practice need not be expensiveÃ¢â¬ (Carers.UK, 2005). The research conducted indicated that there are instances whereby imaginative good practice helped to safeguard the human rights of carers. One such example that was provided referred to the utilization of a 24-hour hotline that enabled carers as well as patients to arrange for support in cases of emergency thus referring to the Ã¢â¬Ëright to lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ aspect of human rights (Carers.UK, 2005). However, unfortunately, there are too few such examples. Conclusion The KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund has been most progressive in being circumspect as well as balanced in their review and analysis of legislation, policy, procedures and rights as contained in documentation and as provided by carers and patients. Steps to shore up the human rights of carers as well as patients have been implemented under the Carers Recognition and Services Act 1995 (opsi.gov.uk, 1995) that calls for a separate assessment of carers at the same time one is carried out for patients. The vagueness is being addressed to clear up ambiguities in terms of words and phrases such as Ã¢â¬Ësubstantial careÃ¢â¬â¢ services are a result of assessment, autonomy, health and safety, management of daily care routine and involvement (opsi, 2000). The preceding represents four key criteria under the Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000 (opsi, 2000). It corrects the loopholes found under the Carers Recognition and Services Act 1995 in that anyone over the age of 16 years of age who are or intend to provide substantial care that will be on a regular basis for another individual over the age of 18 years of age is entitled to an assessment (opsi, 2000). The preceding occurs regardless of whether the individual for whom they provide care and or support to has refused community care services (opsi, 2000). Additionally, social workers are advised to provide potential carers of their rights through the hand out of a special booklet that sets forth the benefits in receiving a carers assessment (Carers.UK, 2005). All of the foregoing represent policy and practice developments that are and have addressed a number of carer and patients concerns and issues under community care for disability, health, mental health and the elderly, yet there is still room for improvement. As shown and evidenced throughout this examination, governmental policies in terms of community care policies and practice for the areas of disability, health, mental health and the elderly has been one of evolution. Sometimes however, representing backward steps before moving forward. Evelyn Fox (1930, p. 71) represents an example of progressive thinking and understanding that was not put into practice initially, but was gradually recognized as the approach later in the process. Her statement that placed the family at the center of community care was initially usurped by the efficiency of the National Health Service and Community Care Act of 1990 was devised to curb costs, but shortchanged patients and carers (Leathard, 2003, p. 16). As the system evolved, through its triumvirate of autonomy, empowerment and choice (Levick, 1992, pp. 76-81), it was impacted by the Human Rights Act 1998 and more recently by the combined initiatives of the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (2003). These initiatives helped to reshape the inadequacies as presented by the efficient governmental system and adding more humanity, understanding and caring. Through addressing the observations of Smart, 2002, p. 102) along with Biggs and Powell (2000, pp. 41-49) who commented that the ActÃ¢â¬â¢s major weaknesses represented its failure to account for a critical analysis of the roles and daily care practices of carers and the importance of maintaining home care for as long as possible. Additionally, the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (2003) initiatives brought forth the importance of the carer, patient voice in their affairs as a part of the overall community based care programmes. Thus, after 80 years, the system as swung back to Evelyn Fox (1930. p. 71). Family, after all, is the basis for the community, and as such is the foundation of community care. Bibliography Bacigalupo, V., Bornat, J., Bytheway, B., Johnson, J., Spurr, S. (2002) Understanding Care, Welfare and Community: A Reader. Routledge, London, United Kingdom BBC News (1998) The origins of care in the community. 29 July 1998. Retrieved on 11 May 2007 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/background_briefings/politics_of_health/141204.stm Biggs, S., Powell, J. (2000) Surveillance and Elder Abuse: The Rationalities and Technologies of Community Care. Vol. 4, No. 1. Journal of Contemporary Health Booker, C., Repper, J. (1998) Serious Mental Health Problems in the Community: Policy, Practice and Research. Balliere Tindall, London, United Kingdom careline.org.uk (2007) What is Community Care? Retrieved on 11 May 2007 from http://www.careline.org.uk/section.asp?docid=166 Carers UK (2005) Whose rights are they anyway? Carers and the Human Rights Act. Retrieved on 14 May 2007 from http://www.carersuk.org/Policyandpractice/PolicyResources/Research/ResearchHumanRightsReport.pdf Clements, L. (2000) Community Care and the Law. Legal Action, London, United Kingdom Department of Health (2007) The New NHS. Retrieved on 14 May 2007 from http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/doh/newnhs/newnhs.htm Foster, A., Robert, V. (1998) Managing Mental Health Care in the Community: Chaos and Containment. Routledge, London, United Kingdom Fox, V. (1930) Community Schemes for the Social Control of Mental Defectives. Vol. 31. Mental Welfare Hanford, L., Easterbrook, L., Stevenson, J. (1999) KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund Rehabilitation Programme. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund, London, United Kingdom Hardy, B., Young, R., Winslow, G. (1999) Dimensions of Choice in the assessment and care management process: the views of older people, carers and care mangers. Vol. 7, No. 6. Health and Social Care in the Community. Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2004) Community care development: a new concept. Retrieved on 11 May 2007 from http://www.jrf.org.uk/knowledge/findings/socialcare/534.asp Journal of American Geriatric Society (1994) Relocation of the aged and disabled. Vol. 11. of American Geriatric Society KingÃ¢â¬â¢s Fund (2003) Kings Fund statement on the health and social care (community health and standards) bill. Retrieved on 13 May 2007 from http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/news/press_releases/kings_fund_34.html Leathard, A. (2003) Interprofessional Collaboration: From Policy to Practice in Health and Social Care. Brunner-Routledge, London, United Kingdom Levick, P. (1992) The Janus face of community care legislation: An opportunity for radical. Vol. 34. Critical Social Policy NHS Executive (1996) Priorities and Planning Guidance for the NHS. NHS Executive opsi.gov.uk (2000) Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000. Retrieved on 14 May 2007 from http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2000/20000016.htm opsi.gov.uk (1995) Carers Recognition and Services Act 1995. Retrieved on 14 May 2007 from http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts1995/Ukpga_19950012_en_1.htm Propper, C. (1995) Agency and Incentives in the NHS Internal Market. Vol. 40, No. 12. Social Science Medicine reference.com (2007) Care in the Community. Retrieved on 12 May 2007 from http://www.reference.com/browse/wiki/Care_in_the_Community Smart, B. (2002) Michel Foucault. Routledge, New York, N.Y., United States Times (1994) Elderly patients die within weeks of transfer. 7 July 1994. The Times, London, United Kingdom
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Can you believe that the National FFA Organization (Future Farmers of America) has over 400,000 members and growing in the United States, Guam, Puerto Rico, and The Virgin Islands? The FFA is a National Organization devoted to teaching and introducing students to agricultural education. It has introduced a large impact on students, changed their views on agriculture, and given them the chances to carry them out. The history of FFA is quite a long one, starting back in 1925, when four agricultural education teachers organized the Future Farmers of Virginia, which would serve as a model for FFA, as well as the New Farmers of America. Then, in 1930, at the third National Convention, national competitions were restricted to only male competitors. The official creed, written by E. M. Tiffany, and official colors, national blue and corn gold, were adopted this year as well. In 1933, Ohio FFA members wore blue corduroy jackets with the FFA emblem printed on the back, and those were later immersed into the official uniform. Soon after, the NFA and the FFV merged together with the FFA. Later on, in 1988, the organizations name was changed from Future Farmers of America to FFA Organization and membership was extended to middle school students. Lastly, in 2006, the National Convention was at its maximum attendance, with a jaw-dropping amount of about fifty thousand attendants! The history if FFA will continue to become more memorable as long as new members join. The FFA training sequence consists of several areas, pertaining specifically to the SAE program, career opportunities, and chapter meetings. The Supervised Agricultural Experience, or SAE, Program is used to carry out a knowledgeable agriculture project. The project workers are often helped by their chapter advisor, depending on what area of study the project is from, choosing from ag production, food science, forestry, ag sales/ service, and horticulture. In some chapters, members are permitted to visit the chapterÃ¢â¬â¢s greenhouses/farms to expand and further pursue Ag education. They can choose to extend their knowledge in fields like farm economics, marketing, computer science, and biotechnology. Through chapter meetings, members will learn and develop public speaking skills and working for others. There are several activities to compete in and degrees to earn and receive in FFA. Members compete at local, state, and national levels in the fields of public speaking, Ag mechanics, dairy-cattle, livestock, poultry, dairy food, meat, and rabbit evaluations, floriculture, ornamental horticulture, parliamentary procedures, and nursery/ landscaping skills. The FFA also gives out four degrees to its members. The Discovery Degree is given to seventh and eight grade students. The Greenhand Degree is given to high school freshmen with knowledge, goals, and skills of FFA. After completing two semesters of Ag course work, you receive the Chapter Degree, with which you are entitled to wear a silver pin. The last degree, the State Degree, is obtained for outstanding achievements and for development of leadership skills. The receiver, however, must have also worked at least a minimum of 300 unpaid hours, and they receive with this honor a golden emblem pin. The FFA is definetly one of the younger organizations in the U. S. But, throughout the last ten years, it has delivered a tremendous impact to students, teachers, and the nation along with itÃ¢â¬â¢s future.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
In your own words explain the demerit point system and give 10 infractions and how many demerit points it will cost the driver for each. Ans: Demerit points are added to your driverÃ¢â¬â¢s licence, if you are convicted of breaking certain driving laws. The rules are different depending on if you are a new driver or have a full licence. The demerit-point system encourages drivers to improve their behaviour and protects people from drivers who abuse the privilege of driving. Drivers convicted of driving-related offences have demerit points recorded on their records.Demerit points stay on your record for two years from the date of the offence. If you accumulate too many demerit points, your driverÃ¢â¬â¢s licence can be suspended. The person or office in charge of demerit points is the Ministry of transportation of Ontario. The Ministry of Transportation office controls the Ontario drivers by adding a system of demerit points to traffic tickets for such things as speeding and nearly all other traffic violation tickets. Demerit points are issued from the Ministry of Transportation office in order to reprimand drivers who collect more than their fair share of driving offenses.Consequences of demerit points include the removal of driving privileges by the Ministry of Transportation office. Ontario drivers who are considered probationary drivers can accrue up to six demerit points with fully licensed Ontario drivers being allowed to accumulate 15 demerit points before their licenses are suspended. The Ministry of transportation office will suspend a driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license for 30 days upon the first offense of 15 accumulated demerit points. They have the power to suspend the license for up to six months for successive collected demerit points.Additionally, once a person has accumulated nine demerit points the Ministry of Transportation office may request the driver to attend an interview. This interview is a chance for the driver to plead their case against having their license suspended. Besides the possible suspension of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s license, traffic tickets that contain demerit points have a direct impact on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s financial situation because the demerit points directly affect insurance rates. Seven demerit points are the highest amount of one time demerit points received for a single incident and these are given for racing and failing to remain at the scene of an accident.Demerit points can be given in a combination, for example someone can leave the scene of an accident which carries a penalty of seven demerit points in addition to being ticketed for failing to stop for a school bus which carries six demerit points making the total demerit points for one single incident 13 demerit points. This single incident will land a person an interview with the Ministry of Transportation office for possible license suspension. Demerit points from the Ministry of transportation office stay on someone's driving record for two years from the offe nsive date before they fall away.The following are 10 infractions and the demerit points given. 1. failing to remain at the scene of a collision 2. failing to stop when signaled or asked by a police officer 7 demerit points each 3. careless driving 4. racing 5. exceeding the speed limit by 50 km/hour or more 6. failing to stop for a school bus 6 demerit points each 7. Failing to stop at an unprotected railway crossing (for bus drivers only) 5 demerit points 8. exceeding the speed limit by 30 to 49 km/hour 9 following too closely 4 demerit points each 10 exceeding the speed limit by 16 to 29 km/hourDriving through, around or under a railway crossing barrier 3 demerit points each Q2Explain briefly what is safety standard certificate and emission testing? Ans: According to the Ontario Ministry of Transportation, Ã¢â¬Å"A Safety Standards Certificate is a document that certifies a vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s fitness. Ã¢â¬ A Safety Standards Certificate is valid for 36 days after the inspection. However, the certificate is not a guarantee or warranty that the vehicle will stay fit for any period. The Certificate process was designed to ensure that any car changing hands must possess the minimum safety requirements to drive on the road.A safety certificate states that a car meets all legal safety standards and is fit to be driven. Emissions testing is to make sure that a vehicle does not produce more emissions than is allowable by law, for that particular vehicle. If it is failing emissions that means some of your emission equipment is failing and needs to be fixed. These are tests the state use to make sure the cars that are on the road are safe and non-polluting. A safety test will check things like brakes, headlights, alignment, tires. Emissions test will check the exhaust for smog or pollution levels.A safety standards certificate is a document that certifies a vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s fitness. You can buy and register a vehicle without a safety certificate, but you cannot put your own plates on the vehicle or drive it without one. Any inspection station in Ontario licensed by the Ministry of Transportation can issue a safety standards certificate, provided your vehicle passes an inspection. Many garages are licensed Ã¢â¬â look for a sign saying it is a Motor Vehicle Inspection Station. A safety standards certificate is valid for 36 days after the inspection. However, the certificate is not a guarantee or warranty that the will stay fit for any period.A Safety Standards Certificate is required in the case of any vehicle changing hands to a new owner. This step is required before the new ownerÃ¢â¬â¢s licence plate can be attached. The car must receive a Certificate before it can be Ã¢â¬Å"platedÃ¢â¬ (receive new plates from the Ministry of Transportation). Q3Explain the legal consequences of driving under the influence of alcohol? Ans: There are different laws for learner drivers and fully licensed drivers when it comes to drinking before driving. If you have a provisional license you cannot have any alcohol in system, no matter your age.Many drivers with a provisional license mistakenly think that they can have a drink before driving if they are old enough to drink. This is not true. If you have a learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s license make sure that you have a blood alcohol level of 0% before you get behind the wheel of the car. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be driving to get in trouble The car you are in doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be moving to get an impaired driving violation? If you are sitting behind the wheel of a vehicle, moving or not, and have too much alcohol in your system you canget a fine, lose your license and face other penalties.DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ever sit in the driverÃ¢â¬â¢s seat unless you are physically able to drive. Make sure that you understand side effects. Driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs is a serious crime in Ontario. Make sure that you read the information about side effects before driving if you have taken an y prescription or over the counter medications. Never drive after using illegal drugs. You should also know that mixing drugs and alcohol can make side effects and impairment worse. Anything that impairs your ability to drive safely is illegal, even if you are under the legal blood alcohol limit.There are serious consequences to drinking and driving. Ontario takes impaired driving very seriously. In fact they are known for having one of the strictest laws in all of North America. Drivers under 21 or with a provisional license can immediately have their license suspended if they have any alcohol in their blood. Fully licensed drivers over 21 must have a blood alcohol level that is lower than . 05% or they risk a 24 hour road side suspension. In addition to facing suspension you can also get a fine of $60-$500 if convicted and a 30 day suspension.If your blood alcohol level is more than . 08% you face more serious charges. Charges will remain on your Ontario driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license fo r at least 10 years. Getting a citation for drinking and driving is very serious and the consequences can remain with you for a long time. Many drivers have to take alcohol education courses, others have to have ignition interlock devices installed and you can face serious fines. Any convictions will remain on your license for at least 10 years. Breath analysis is mandatory if requested. If you are asked to take a breath analysis test, you must comply.Refusing to do so can result in an immediate suspension of your license, even if you are not intoxicated. Never let anyone drive your vehicle unless you know they have a license. If you are caught drinking and driving you may be required to get an ignition interlock device on your vehicle. This applies to any car that you will drive. If you drive a vehicle without this device the vehicle will be impounded. Make sure that if you are loaning your car to someone else that you first verify their license or you may be without a car for 7 da ys while it is in impound.The consequences for drinking and driving in Ontario get more serious with each offense. While each drinking and driving conviction is serious, you will find that the penalties get worse with each offense. For example if you are caught in what is called the Ã¢â¬Å"warn rangeÃ¢â¬ (blood alcohol level between . 05% and . 08%) you will face a $150 fine and a 3 day suspension on the first offense. The second offense you will have the $150 fine, a 7 day suspension and an alcohol education course. The third time you will face the $150 fine, a 30 suspension, a 6 month mandatory interlock device and a mandatory alcohol treatment program.As you can see the consequences get worse each time and these are just the roadside consequences. Others may apply if you are convicted. These cannot be disputed, appealed or overturned. Drinking and driving is expensive. You can face some severe fines and financial charges if you choose to do this. Estimated court costs can be a nywhere between $2,000 and $10,000. If you violate the criminal code your fine will be $1,000. A treatment program costs $578. Your insurance will go up, sometimes as much as $4,500 additionally per year.Plus if you have to get an ignition interlock device it can cost $1,300. As you can see, it is much less expensive to avoid drinking before driving. If you are planning on drinking, donÃ¢â¬â¢t take the risk of losing your license. Instead ask someone else to drive. This is by far the easiest way to avoid drinking and driving convictions and problems. If you never drink and drive you will never have to worry about any of these potential consequences. If you have an Ontario driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license, make sure that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t risk it by drinking and driving.This is a serious offense and isnÃ¢â¬â¢t worth the risk. In addition to the financial and legal problems that you can face you can also find yourself seriously injuring or killing others or yourself. Next time you get ready to drink, make sure that you find someone else to drive you home. The Ontario Highway Traffic Act (HTA) creates punishments that are in addition to the Criminal Code fines and periods of imprisonment for drunk driving offences, including licence suspensions between 1 year for a first offence to a lifetime for a third offence.In addition to being subject to the suspensions, these drivers have to complete a remedial measures assessment and education or treatment program (for approximately 10 months), and also have to install an Ignition Interlock Device on their vehicles for between 1 year for a first offence to lifetime for a third offence (if the suspension period is reduced to 10 years). The Ignition Interlock Device is a leased breath alcohol monitoring machine wired into your vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s ignition.However, the HTA is now also allowing for early reinstatement of the suspended licence with the installation of the Ignition Interlock Device Ã¢â¬â if you meet certain condition s. This program is available for persons convicted of a first impaired or over 80 driving or refuse breath sample offence that did not cause bodily harm or death and did not involve drug impairment. You must have a car and valid insurance to be eligible. Additionally, you must not be under another suspension (such as for dangerous driving or a novice driver disqualification) and you must have your fines fully paid. There are 2 Ã¢â¬Å"streamsÃ¢â¬ : Stream A3 months minimum driverÃ¢â¬â¢s licence suspension Followed by a minimum Ignition Interlock Installation Period of 9 months *Stream Ã¢â¬ËAÃ¢â¬â¢ is only available if you plead guilty and are sentenced within 90 days of being charged* Stream B 6 months minimum driverÃ¢â¬â¢s licence suspension Followed by a minimum Ignition Interlock Installation Period of 12 months Q4Explain the different types of car insurance in Ontario. Indicate which one of these is mandatory? Ans: Ontario law requires that all motorists have auto insur ance. Fines for vehicle owners, lessees and drivers who do not carry valid auto insurance can range from $5,000 to $50,000.If you are found driving without valid auto insurance, you can have your driver's licence suspended and your vehicle impounded. If you live in Ontario then there are a number of mandatory and optional car insurance coverage types available to you. Here are the coverage types that are mandatory for all drivers in Ontario. Liability Every vehicle in Ontario must carry at least $200,000 in third party liability coverage but most people choose to increase that amount to $1 million or $2 million in coverage. Third party liability insurance protects you in the event you damage someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s property or if you injure or kill someone.Accident Benefits Accident Benefits is another mandatory coverage in Canada. It will help cover income replacement, medical needs, rehabilitation, non-earner benefits, and caregiver costs if you are injured or killed in a motor vehi cle accident. In 2010, Ontario changed their insurance laws to give you more options when it comes to your accident benefits coverage. Uninsured/Underinsured Driver Protection This coverage will protect you (and a member of your family) if you are injured or killed by an uninsured driver. It also applies to a driver that is unidentified, such as the case in many hit-and-run incidents.This coverage also protects your vehicle if the driver is identified. Direct Compensation Property Damage This coverage is included in your car insurance premiums. It pays for damage that your vehicle might sustain in an automobile accident that is not entirely your fault. Optional Insurance Coverage The following coverage types are optional in Ontario but you should at least consider them when you go to renew your auto insurance. They will increase your overall insurance premiums but they could also save you a lot of money in the long run. Comprehensive CoverIf you want to have your car protected again st vandalism, fire, floods, windstorms, lightening, and theft then you should consider comprehensive coverage. It will protect you against damages or loss caused by those things. Collision Cover This optional coverage will pay for damages to your own vehicle. It is not required by law, but it is recommended, especially if your vehicle would be expensive to replace. Collision coverage will also pay for damages to your vehicle when you roll the automobile or if you hit another object Ã¢â¬â be it a car, a tree, or a building etc.If you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have this coverage and you are entirely at-fault in an accident then you will not be covered. Almost all car leasing and financing companies will require that you purchase collision protection if are to lease or finance a vehicle. Transportation Replacement Coverage This additional coverage will reimburse you for the money you spend on renting a car, while your vehicle is being repaired or replaced. Depending on the coverage you get it ma y pay for car rentals, taxis, and public transportation while your car is being fixed, or while you seek out a new vehicle. Depreciation CoverageThis coverage allows you to replace your vehicle with a brand new one, should your car be stolen or deemed a total loss. If you are convicted of driving without valid auto insurance, your insurance company may consider you a Ã¢â¬Å"high-riskÃ¢â¬ driver and charge you higher premiums or refuse to sell you insurance altogether. If you are injured in an accident while driving or occupying an uninsured vehicle: you may not be entitled to receive income replacement and/or non-earner benefits; and you may not be allowed to sue the at-fault driver for compensation as a result of injuries received in the accident.MoreÃ importantly, if you are found to be at fault for an accident causing injury or death to another person, you may be held personally responsible for his/her medical costs and other losses. Homework Day 2 Q. 1Explain in no more tha n 200 words how the knowledge of vehicle components leads to safe driving. Ans: Knowing your car and its various parts can be a life saver. The more you know about your car, the better equipped you are to handle problems, and the more likely you are to notice when something is wrong. Taking the time to familiarize yourself with your car will make driving it that much more enjoyable.One of the main benefits of knowing your car is being able to tell when your mechanic is trying to scam you. Even the most reputable mechanics have employees who will try to sell you parts and labor that aren't necessary. Each time you take your car into the shop Ã¢â¬â whether for a routine oil change or a minor repair Ã¢â¬â the mechanic is going to look for other problems that can be repaired during that same trip. Sometimes they'll tell you that something needs to be replaced, such as an air filter, when you've still got another 3,000 miles before you need a new one.Not only that, but even when yo u do need a new part or a repair, the mark-up for what the mechanic will charge you (versus what you would pay retail) is ridiculous. Another benefit to knowing your car is that the more familiar you are with the way your car operates, the more likely you'll be to notice when something is wrong. For example, I can usually tell just by driving my car when the air in the tires is low. When you pay attention to the way your car is supposed to feel, you'll feel even the slightest difference when something is amiss.A difference in the hum of the engine or a strange lop-sidedness can make all the difference. The longer you wait to repair your car, the more damage it might sustain. To get to know your car, start by studying your owner's manual. It's that thick book you keep in the glove compartment Ã¢â¬â you might have never even looked at it before. Take it inside with you after work and look through it. Study the diagrams and text in each chapter and learn about the different aspects of your car. If you aren't sure what something is, take the book outside and examine that part on your vehicle so you'll know what it is.If you find that you enjoy knowing about your car, you may be able to learn how to conduct simple repairs on your own. For example, having the brake pads on your car replaced by a mechanic could cost you up to $500. Replacing them yourself, however, will only cost about $50 plus a few hours of your time. The same goes for oil changes, fuse replacements, bulb replacements, your spark plugs and other parts. Once you know how to replace them, you'll get better and faster each time your car needs a repair. The most important thing is to know when you can do something yourself and when your car needs to be taken to a mechanic.Know your strengths and weaknesses and if you have doubts, haul your vehicle in. It's far less expensive to have a mechanic do it the first time than to pay someone to fix the damage you caused yourself. If you have friends or rela tives that are experienced with cars, you might ask them to assist with DIY repairs until you get the hang of it. It's also a good idea to know the tools you might need to fix your car. Keeping a small tool box in your trunk or under the seat will save you if you happen to break down by the side of the road. Make sure you always have a spare tire as well as the equipment needed to change it.You should also keep spare bulbs in your car in case a headlight winks out while you're on the road. Knowing your car is a good practice regardless of who you are and what kind of car you drive. It isn't always about saving money, but also about protecting yourself. You wouldn't want to continue driving your car, completely ignorant to a problem, so learn how your car smells, sounds, feels and looks so you can identify problems immediately. It helps to know how your vehicle works in order to best be able to understand how it will react in certain situations. For instance front versus rear drive.O ne can Ã¢â¬Å"power outÃ¢â¬ of a skid on pavement with compromised traction with front drive where rear drive will cause the rear wheels to loose traction and thus control. Other examples are; is the parking brake connected to the front or rear wheels? Saabs and Subarus use the front wheels for the parking brake. In an the event of brake failure it is safer to use it in these vehicles rather a parking brake that works off the rear wheels as that can cause the vehicle to spin. It also important to be able to recognize signs that a catastrophic failure is imminent such as the symptoms of failing tires, badly worn ball joints or tie rod ends.Q. 2Briefly explain how highway driving differs from city driving. Give 3 points of difference? Ans:Once on the freeway, a safe driver travels at a steady speed, looking forward and anticipating whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going to happen on the road ahead. Traffic should keep to the right, using the left lanes for passing. As in city driving, your eyes shoul d be constantly moving, scanning the road ahead, to each side and behind. Look ahead to where you are going to be in the next 15 to 20 seconds, or as far ahead as you can see, when you travel at faster speeds. Remember to keep scanning and check your mirrors frequently.Stay clear of large vehicles. Because of their size, they block your view more than other vehicles. Leave space around your vehicle. This will let you see clearly in every direction and will give you time and space to react. Click here for following distances. Be careful not to cut off any vehicle, large or small, when making a lane change or joining the flow of traffic. It is dangerous and illegal for a slower moving vehicle to cut in front of a faster moving vehicle. Use the far left lane of a multi-lane freeway to pass traffic moving slower than the speed limit, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t stay there.Drive in the right-hand lane when possible. On many freeways with three or more lanes in each direction, large trucks cannot tr avel in the far left lane and must use the lane to the right for passing. Get into the habit of driving in the right lane, leaving the other lanes clear for passing. Q. 3List and briefly explain different warning gauges in a vehicle. Ans: Oil Pressure Light. This light refers to possible low oil levels, a worn or broken oil pump or excessive main bearing wear. Ignoring it could result in a seized engine or major engine damage. Brake Warning Light.This could refer to driving with the handbrake engaged, low brake fluid level or worn out brake pads. Brakes are the most important part of your vehicle; they affect the safety of the driver and all occupants. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t ignore this light! Air Bag SRS. If this warning light comes on, your air bag is not going to inflate on impact, which could jeopardize your safety. Malfunction is usually caused by a crash sensor fault, bad electrical connection or air bag module malfunction. Engine Temperature Light. This means the coolant level is low, the cooling fan isnÃ¢â¬â¢t working or the thermostat is failing to open.If this light flashes on, stop driving immediately, turn off the engine, and seek mechanical assistance. Driving while the temperature light is on can do serious and expensive engine damage. Battery Charging System Warning Light. This usually refers to an alternator failure, loose or torn alternator belt, faulty battery or a broken wire. The light indicates a problem with the charging system; get it repaired at your earliest convenience. Tire Pressure Warning Light. This light could be triggered by a flat tire, low tire pressure, tire pressure light not reset or bad air pressure sensor.Excessively worn tires or insufficient tire pressure not only affects fuel economy, it poses a risk. Q. 4 What is ABS and what kind of situations does it prevent? Ans:Anti-lock braking system (ABS) is an automobile safety system that allows the wheels on a motor vehicle to maintain tractive contact with the road surface accordin g to driver inputs while braking, preventing the wheels from locking up (ceasing rotation) and avoiding uncontrolled skidding. It is an automated system that uses the principles of threshold braking and cadence braking which were practiced by skillful drivers with previous generation braking systems.It does this at a much faster rate and with better control than a driver could manage. ABS generally offers improved vehicle control and decreases stopping distances on dry and slippery surfaces for many drivers; however, on loose surfaces like gravel or snow-covered pavement, ABS can significantly increase braking distance, although still improving vehicle control. Since initial widespread use in production cars, anti-lock braking systems have evolved considerably. Recent versions not only prevent wheel lock under braking, but also electronically control the front-to-rear brake bias.This function, depending on its specific capabilities and implementation, is known as electronic brake fo rce distribution (EBD), traction control system, emergency brake assist, or electronic stability control (ESC). There are many different variations and control algorithms for use in ABS. One of the simpler systems works as follows: 1. The controller monitors the speed sensors at all times. It is looking for decelerations in the wheel that are out of the ordinary. Right before a wheel locks up, it will experience a rapid deceleration.If left unchecked, the wheel would stop much more quickly than any car could. It might take a car five seconds to stop from 60 mph (96. 6 km/h) under ideal conditions, but a wheel that locks up could stop spinning in less than a second. 2. The ABS controller knows that such a rapid deceleration is impossible, so it reduces the pressure to that brake until it sees an acceleration, then it increases the pressure until it sees the deceleration again. It can do this very quickly, before the tire can actually significantly change speed.The result is that the tire slows down at the same rate as the car, with the brakes keeping the tires very near the point at which they will start to lock up. This gives the system maximum braking power. 3. When the ABS is in operation the driver will feel a pulsing in the brake pedal; this comes from the rapid opening and closing of the valves. This pulsing also tells the driver that the ABS has been triggered. Some ABS systems can cycle up to 16 times per second. Q. 5Give examples of three safety devices and how they contribute to passenger safety? Ans:Top 10 Vehicle Safety Devices AirbagsSome people think that these are actually dangerous, but they have in fact saved many, many lives. There are two main types of air bags, dual stage airbags and side airbags. If needed, the dual stage airbags will go off at different times, one in a minor accident and both in a more serious crash. Side airbags help to prevent drivers and passengers from getting head injuries. Small children should be in their car se ats, in the back seat of your vehicle, where there are no airbags that can actually injure them rather than save their lives. On/Off Switches Many vehicles are equipped with on/off switches for airbags.This is for the times when children are going to be sitting near them. There have been many instances of airbags injuring children, and you can eliminate this risk by using the switch. There have been many incidents of injuries and even death in small children because of airbags, and this switch will eliminate that problem. Passenger Sensing System This has been created to reduce injuries or death to smaller children. This is an advanced airbag system that can tell the size of the person in the seat, with sensors that get information about the front-seat passengerÃ¢â¬â¢s weight and the pressure on the seat.This information tells the airbags whether or not to go off in the event of a frontal crash. Energy-Absorbing Steering System This is designed so that it will compress upon impact , lessening the risk of rib injuries to drivers. This has been proven to work in many instances, and it has reduced the risk of driver fatalities by 12%, and serious injuries and death risks have been reduced by 38%. When there is a crash, drivers are often thrown forward, and the steering wheel can cause serious injuries, making this feature one that you should look for in your next vehicle.Back Up Sensing System This is a wonderful little invention that makes it so that when you are backing up, you will be warned if you get too close to another vehicle or other object. This is now an option on a number of larger vehicles, such as RVÃ¢â¬â¢s and SUVÃ¢â¬â¢s, and it has greatly reduced the number of collisions caused by backing up, and a lot of bicycles in driveways have been saved because of this feature. Electrochromatic Mirror/Auto Dimming Mirrors One thing that can really be annoying when you are driving at night is the reflection of headlights in your mirrors.This feature wil l automatically darken the mirrors, which in turn reduces the glare. Today, approximately 10% of all vehicles are equipped with this feature, and many more vehicles are expected to have this technology in the near future. This not only helps to prevent accidents, it also helps people who are extremely light sensitive, and bothered by lights in their mirrors. Head Restraints Two of the most common injuries that occur due to automobile accidents are head injuries and whiplash.These head restraints, which are on the top of the front seats, will help to hold the head in place, and they reduce these types of injuries. New and more advanced systems make it so the seat will move down and back in the event of a collision, so there will not be as much forward motion, which of course will lessen the risk of head and neck injuries. Heads Up Display One should never take their eyes off the road while they are driving, but we all do. We must look down to check our speed and other things, and it can only take a split second for an accident to occur.A heads up display (HUD) will put the information you need right across your windshield, so your eyes never have to look anywhere but at the road. You will still be able to watch what you are doing, while being able to find the information you need quickly and easily. Padded Knee Bolster Knee injuries are a common result of automobile accidents, and this device can greatly reduce the risk of this type of injury. This is another feature that can keep the driver or passengers in the proper position to lessen their chances of being injured.It will also help to keep passengers from sliding beneath the instrument panel and risking becoming trapped or injured even further. Seatbelts These may have been around for many years, but many advancements have been made so that they will protect automobile occupants even more than the older versions. Unlike in the past, where seatbelts just went around your waist, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s vehicles are eq uipped with front and rear seatbelts for both the lap and shoulders, and the locking system insures that those wearing the seatbelts (which is the law in Canada and the US) will not be thrown forward if an accident occurs.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Does exposure to media violence increase an individuals likelihood of engaging in violent behaviour? Media has dramatically changed over time from black white to coloured screens, from newspaper to having information on fingertips. Media has also become more violet in comparison to what it was over the past generations, as now video games and movies are action packed. The studies conducted by research scientist show various results from harmful to neutral effects of media, all these studies were children and teenage based it was not highly focused on adults. Rowell and Laramine (2006) proved that violet media does lead to children having violet behaviour; USA is a great example as Americans spend three to four hours on television andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The media violence effects can affect children in a large basic, as they are in the process of growing and they violet exposure can lead to lasting consequences. This also could be due to the fact that men are more aggressive than women overall but this could have lead to the research being a biased. The sex differences could also have arisen from charters in viedo game being males (Bartholow Anderson 2002). Longitudinal study was conducted on teenage couples and this also proved that males had a much aggressive behaviour and 65% devoted time to media (Friedlander, Connolly, Pepler Craig 2013) However when violet video games where played cooperatively aggression levels on participants were low. In an experiment participants where asked to play violet video games in different scenario. The first was wher the participant had to individually play and beat the score and second where team work was requied to be aget a high score. The showed that playing cooperatively together decreases you aggression level and your attached to the violet content. Cooperative exposure to violet content will not result in violent behaviour and playing the same content together will result in violent behaviour, but will get you team building skills ( Eno et al 2012). There are five major areas which have effects due to media violence, behavioural, cognitive, emotional, physical and attitudinal (Douglas, Muniba Craig 2007). AShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Television Violence On Today s Society1518 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Aside from video games, there is a multitude of media that todayÃ¢â¬â¢s yo uth is exposed to every day. Such media includes social media websites such as Twitter and Instagram, movies, television, and news broadcasting programs. Television, however, plays arguably the largest role in influencing adolescents in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. 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