Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Abortion Controversy in the Christian Life. In this life there are many things going on outside of what we want. one of which is a pregnancy or having children out of the will and the plans we make. If you become pregnant it will happen, its one thing to do is to abort the fetus. But it becomes a problem for Christianity as one of the ten commandments says do not kill. Then how if pregnancy occurs as a result of a rape or other abuses that caused the woman to bear the losses many times?. What if pregnancy occurs but can affect the health of the pregnant mother?. That I will try to discuss in the these essay I made. I tried to structured to make these essay easy to read and for that purpose, I would divide it into three mainÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(. abortion. Cambridge Dictionary of Human Biology and Evolution.) But according to my understanding, abortion is an act to stop the fetal development in the womb by removing the fetus before the specified time and according to wikipedia, an abortion is Ã¢â¬Å" the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus prior ti ViabilityÃ¢â¬ , (anonymous, www.wikipedia.org). Abortion was a problem that has been going on and have been problem since a long time ago. So When Did Abortion Begin?. Abortion is often described as something new, Productions of the scientific study of modern life but the actual abortion is the thing that had happened a long time even long before recorded history. From the ancient records and history, mentioned that abortion has been carried out and one of the ancient record that described is the Ebers Papyrus an ancient record from the year of 1550 BCE. It is an ancient Egyptian medical text. In this Ebers Papyrus text, The abortion can be induced with some plant- fiber tampon that coated with a c ompound than contains crushed dates and honey and then they use some herbal medicine that called silphium and pennyroyal that had been long extict which is a plant that is very expensive in the world of medicine in ancient times. So Is there any verse in the bible that mention about abortions?. From what weShow MoreRelatedConsequences Of Being Good People Essay1371 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConsequences of Being Good People Prior to 1973, abortion was legal in some of the 50 United States, usually with restrictions. In 1973, in its Roe v. Wade decision, the United States Supreme Court, ruled that a woman has a right to an abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy. However, the states still have the power to regulate abortion during the second trimester and prohibit it during the third trimester. Since that time, abortion has become one of the most controversial and divisive issuesRead MoreAbortion Essay796 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAn abortion is seen by millions as murder to an innocent child, death to innocent unborn fetuses, whilst others see an escape from panic, shame, poverty, dread, fear, and anxiety. Over 58 million abortions have been made since 1973 according to texasrighttolife.com, making abortions a giant of a topic. In more detail, an abortion is the surgical termination of an embryo or usually a fetus. This surgery has sparked many arguments over the years and one of the most significa nt was the debate or RoeRead More Abortion934 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAbortion In the following article we will argue wheatear abortion should be practice or should not be practice. It is a subject that concerns all of us; especially women since are the ones expose to this harsh procedure. The argument Electoral Politics and Abortion was published in fall of 2003, by Laurie Shrage. During the year of the Publications Argument, many controversies arouse from this delicate subject, creating new groups like pro- choice and pro-life. Values, belief, and politicsRead MoreThe Social And Cultural Issues Of The Two Mainstream Religions, Christian And Islam1740 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesreligions, Christian and Islam specifically in the UK. In advance of discussing these issues, the two mainstream religions need to be described briefly. According to (source, year), Christianity is religion that is a form of Abrahamic monotheism which is on the basis on the life and experiences of Jesus Christ and this is shown in the New Testament. Christianity is one of the largest religions in the world with more than 2.4 billion people that adhere to the religion, known as Christians. ChristiansRead MoreStem Cell Research Controversy Essay681 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe controversy over stem cell researchÃ¢â¬â¢s use in the medical field is almost two decades old. So why the sudden intense return of fierce political debates over an old issue? ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because President Obama recently revoked the ban on stem cell research, as he believes it holds the potential to revolutionize the medical industry in the years to come. As USA Today quoted him saying in March, after he stopped restricting federal funding for stem cell research, At this moment, the full promise of stemRead MoreAbortion, Pro Choice And Pro Life1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAbortion is one of the most debatable subjects in the United States. It is one of the touchiest subjects of our time primarily due to widely varying beliefs concerning the exact moment at which Ã¢â¬Å"lifeÃ¢â¬ actually begins. There are many points of view toward abortion but the only two fine distinctions are pro-choice and pro-life.Ã¢â¬ As expected, there are many people against abortion, these people are better referred to as pro-life advocates,Ã¢â¬ they advocate the life of the baby over the woman s rightRead More Abortion is Not Murder Essay1202 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAbortion is Not Murder Is abortion murder?Ã Murder is defined as illegal killing with malice aforethought. Abortion fails this definition for two reasons. First, abortion is not illegal, and second, there is no evidence to suggest that expecting mothers feel malice towards their own flesh and blood. Not all killing is murder, of course. Murder is actually a small subset of all killing, which includes accidental homicide, killing in self-defense, suicide, euthanasia, etc. When pro-lifeRead MoreThe Issue Of Abortion On The United States Essay1280 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagespaper is the issue of Abortion, My thesis in this paper is to analyze the history of abortion in the United States prior to the Roe vs. Wade decision and afterwards, and to demonstrate the ways in which our two major political partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ views on this issue have shifted over time along with the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s view on the issue. Abortion has been practiced for most of human history. The ancient Greeks and Romans practiced it, although not all ancient thinkers had the same views on abortion. Ancient Greek Ã¢â¬Å"fatherRead MoreAbortion Should Not Be Permitted1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAs of today, there are still many questions and controversies surrounding the issue on abortion. Some pro-choice activists have argued that females should have the right to choose abortion or to give birth to a child. In contrast, some pro-life activists have argued that abortion should not be permitted because many believe abortion itself is the same idea as intentionally killing a human being. When it comes to the issue on abortion, there are differing reasons and views to consider. For exampleRead MoreEssay on Religion and Medical Ethics1629 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdiscussing the issues that are put forward by Christians concerning the sanctity of life in relation to abortion and what their beliefs are. There are no Biblical scriptures that deal directly with abortion; however I will refer to passages in the Bible that refer to life and other relevant areas. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy and can be defined as the deliberate destruction of a foetus, causing its death. The 1967 Abortion Act allows a woman to terminate or end
Tuesday, December 17, 2019
Citigroup Corporate Social Responsibility Evaluation Corporate social responsibility has become a hot term in the past few years as corporations have become larger and even more powerful. Watch-dog organizations have been formed to monitor the actions of corporations and report Ã¢â¬Å"rogueÃ¢â¬ companies who do not mean their standards for being socially responsible. Recently, many companies have started to issue corporate social responsibility reports along with their annual reports. Citigroup, a financial services firm is one of these companies. Citigroup is one of the largest companies in the world. Citigroup provides a wider range of financial services from insurance to financial advisory service. According to Forbes, Citigroup is theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Major initiatives in 2006 included the following: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Commitment to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 10% of our 2005 baseline by 2011 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Establishment of a Global Energy Council to implement measures to meet our GHG reduction and green power procurement goals Ã¢â¬ ¢ Purchase of 52,283 MWh of green power for our operations Ã¢â¬ ¢ Commitment to target LEED Silver certification for construction of new office facilities Ã¢â¬ ¢ Evaluation of our largest facilities to understand how to attain LEED status for our existing buildings Ã¢â¬ ¢ Purchase of 200% more FSC certified paper (for a total of 557 metric tons) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Purchase of 8,186 metric tons of 30% post-consumer recycled copy paper (netting 2,455.8 metric tons of recycled fiber), as well as 682.5 metric tons of recycled fiber for use in corporate marketing materials. The last initiative comes on the heels of the recent rise in foreclosures on homes in the US due to subprime loans. The program provided counseling services to families facing closures in the eight to ten markets affected most by foreclosures. Citigroup has also adopted a corporate responsibility mantra known as Ã¢â¬Å"Our Shared ResponsibilitiesÃ¢â¬ . We have a responsibility to our clients We have a responsibility to ourselves We have a responsibility to our franchise -Our Shared Responsibilities Internal CSR CitigroupÃ¢â¬â¢s approach to social responsibility is two-fold. The company takes
Monday, December 9, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Handbook of Business and the Environment. Answer: Introduction System is the separate parts that are interrelated to each other for working towards common goals. System thinking approach helps in addressing and resolving these sustainability challenges (Moscardo 2013). The study is focusing on a wicked problem faced due to the food waste in UK household. The system thinking concentrates on the individual parts of the problem and creates the interrelation between those parts. The study would thus concentrates on the development of the theoretical model suitable to define system thinking in resolving the issues with household food waste in UK. Furthermore, the study would describe the three pillars of sustainability to develop the clear understanding regarding the wicked problem chosen for this study. Household food waste is one of the most challenging issues in the sustainability parameter in UK. It is evident that UK family is wasting nearly 60 per month by throwing away the entire meal each day. A report is showing that the most of the challenges arise due to the ongoing scale of household food waste in UK. It is noticed that Britons are throwing almost 24 meals a month and adding up to 4.2 million tones of drink and food every year, which could have been consumed (Derbyshire.gov.uk 2018). Even half of these foods go straight from the refrigerator into the bin. In fact, it is reported that the household in UK waste the one-fifth of the food of which almost 60% could have been eaten. In Britons, people are still throwing away almost 86 million chickens every year (Sheffield 2018). Mostly, breads, milk, and potatoes are the top three meals that are thrown away by the UK household. The equivalent of 5.8m potatoes, 24m bread slices, and 5.9m glasses of milk are wasted per day (Smit hers 2018). In addition to this, it has been observed that the pastries and cakes also belong to the top 10 items that are wasted every day in UK. The Waste Resources Action Program (WRAP), the governments waste advisory body, has presented the report, which reflects that since 2007, the avoidable household food waste has been reduced by almost 21% to 4.2m tones that saved almost 13bn (Wrap.org.uk 2018). WRAP also reported that UK government has failed to reach the predetermined target of cutting household food waste in 2015. The system thinking approach is thus undertaken for going deeper into the problem to resolve the issues and maintain sustainability. In order to develop the understanding regarding the household food waste, it is essential to identify the reasons behind the continuous food wastages. Dui?, Urbaniec and Huisingh (2015) defined that the food waste in the household sometimes involves the psychological factors. For example, people sometimes do not care or unaware about the sustainability challenges that might occur due to the food waste. Many people even can afford to waste the extra foods instead of giving it away to the needy people. Dawodu, Akinwolemiwa and Cheshmehzangi (2017) identified that high quality standards and the inefficient purchase planning lead to food waste. On the contrary, Haines (2016) argued that some upper class in the UK family buy too much or cook too much due to which they tend to waste food more. Even sometimes, the lack of kitchen skills affects the food quality that does not taste good to people. Therefore, they often waste the food due to their reluctance in consuming the poor quality food s. Many people are much conscious about the food safety and they become high sensitive in consuming the healthy foods. They often thus waste the food, which affects the balance in maintaining sustainability. There are some of the socio-economic characteristics of the food waste also found in the generation. It has been observed that age-younger people generate more food waste. In fact, it is also noticed that people with higher income rate generate the food waste eve more than the people in middle income rate. The monetary factors create more effects on this household food waste that affects the sustainability parameter. Mulligan (2014) observed that larger size household produce the food waste more than the single family household. This waste is generally measured on a per capital basis. Among the single household, the households with younger children tend to waste the food much significantly. These specific characteristics of household food waste create the sustainability issues i n UK much recognizably. According to Benn et al. (2014), every system is the assimilation of the interconnected parts that affect the entire systems including the other associated part. Going deeper into the problem would provide the proper solution to the issues. The six stages of the system thinking provide the six types of systematic approach to understand the complex problem and presenting the suitable solutions accordingly. The first stage of system thinking is tell the story, which indicates that the problem can be understood by looking deeper into the whole system instead of any individual part (Jackson 2010). For example, household food waste in UK is a crucial matter in UK. However, it is required concentrating on the entire food habits and waste habits for understanding the source of issues more precisely. The use of the concept maps help in understanding the issue in a prominent way. The second stage is Drawing Behaviour Over Time (BOT) graphs. It defines that while thinking about the problem, pe ople are mostly influenced by the current situation even though the problem follows a particular time dimension (Ricketts 2012). This graph represents a curve that defines the specific behaviour through the time indication. For example, if food waste is the problem to sustainability then the time horizon of issues would be the other segment of the curve. This time specification would help in understanding whether the issues with the household food waste can be resolved or not. The third stage is to create a focusing statement, which provides the clear vision about the problem solving process and defines the target of the team to resolve the issue (Weber and Soderstrom 2011). For instance, UK government had set a target to reduce the percentage of the food waste by 2015. However, the government failed to achieve the target. Hence, the time period within which the target was set to resolve the issue falls under this third stage of system thinking. The fourth stage is the identification of the structure, which presents the statement after having the clear vision about the problem (Weber and Soderstrom 2011). The recognition of the behavioural pattern associated with the description of the issue defines this stage more appropriately. In describing the wicked problem of household food waste, the behavioral pattern of the people is needed to be recognized more clearly. The fifth stage is going deeper into the issue, which tends to look after the underlying probl ems (Robertson 2014). It clarifies the four items, such as purpose of the entire system, the mental models, the larger system, and the personal role in the specific situation. While discussing the wicked problem, it is necessary to address these specifications to dig deeper into the matter. The final stage is to plan an intervention, which requires the collected data regarding the issues chosen for the study (Pandey and Kumar 2016). In order to develop the intervention phase, it is essential to collect the sufficient information regarding the household food waste in UK. The modifications made in the current situation would be helpful enough in connecting to the related parts associated with the thinking system. The intervention leads to reach the desirable behaviour for resolving the issue. The maintenance of this system thinking approach can provide the necessary insights regarding the issues with the household food waste in UK. The three pillars of sustainability is a conceptual management tool that provides the insightful ideas about the three major components of sustainability, such as social, environment, and economic (Mulligan 2014). The household food waste in UK creates the adverse effects on these three pillars of sustainability. In discussing the economic factors in household food waste, it has been observed that it plays the significant role in molding the minds of the people. In the year of 2009, WRAP developed the econometric model, which examines the interplay between the macroeconomic factors (Sheffield 2018). Such of these factors are the household awareness regarding the food waste, the income rate, waste ratio of the household, and the weight of the food they purchase on a daily basis. In the year of 2011, WRAP published the report that revealed that 1.1 million tones reduction in the household food waste between the years of 2007 to 2010 (Sustainablefoodtrust.org 2018). Food waste not only damages the economy, it equally affects the environmental functions. It is notable that food is produced through production, distribution, stores, and cooking process. The use of the fuel, energy, and water is necessary and these elements emit the greenhouse gas that contributes to the climate change. When the food is wasted, it wastes the water as well. One loaf of bread consumes 100 buckets of water whereas a chicken breast consumes 54 buckets of water (Derbyshire.gov.uk 2018). Therefore, it is an issue of environmental sustainability as well. On the other hand, the report also reveals about the social impacts on food waste. In spite of the target set by the government, it has been observed that the food waste is a persisting issue in UK household. Many people in society are going hungry whereas the upper society is considerably wasting more amounts of foods per day. It is notable that younger generation in the society is more likely wasting food. Many people ha ve become more health conscious and their sensitiveness towards healthy food makes them wasting food more. Hence, it is an societal issue that is needed to be reduced. The household in UK waste the one-fifth of the food of which almost 60% could have been eaten or provided to the people who need it. In describing the societal impacts, it is also notable that high quality standards and the inefficient purchase planning lead to food waste (Weber and Soderstrom 2011). There are some of the socio-economic characteristics of the food waste also found in the generation. It has been observed that age-younger people generate more food waste. Until there is an awareness program arranged alerting people about the reduction of food waste, the ratio would increase per year. Moreover, it is also necessary for the UK government to undertaken the hands on approach to reduce such issues more precisely. A joined up policies against such food waste could help the UK government to reach the target of reducing this food waste ratio. Conclusion The study is widely focusing on the system thinking approach to reduce the issue with household food waste in UK. It has been observed that Britons are throwing almost 24 meals a month and adding up to 4.2 million tones of drink and food every year, which could have been consumed. The Waste Resources Action Program (WRAP), the governments waste advisory body, has presented the report, which reflects that the considerable amount of food waste is affecting the economy of UK in a significant manner. The unawareness regarding the food sustainability, the tendency of young generation to consume larger amount of healthy foods, the nature of people belong to high income scale of food wasting are the major reasons of such food waste in UK. The system thinking approach helps in going deeper to the issues to analyze how the issues can be resolved. The effects created on the society, environment, and economic aspects are needed to be followed up by the UK government. It is essential to take so me hands on approaches to deal with the problem and reduce the ratio of household food waste. References Benn, S., Dunphy, Dexter, Griffiths, and Andrew 2014 Organizational Change for Corporate Sustainability. Third ed. Taylor and Francis, Hoboken. Dawodu, A., Akinwolemiwa, B. and Cheshmehzangi, A., 2017. A conceptual re-visualization of the adoption and utilization of the Pillars of Sustainability in the development of Neighbourhood Sustainability Assessment Tools.Sustainable cities and society,28, pp.398-410. Derbyshire.gov.uk, 2018.Environmental impact of food waste: Environment - Derbyshire County Council. [online] Derbyshire.gov.uk. Available at: https://www.derbyshire.gov.uk/environment/rubbish_waste/love_food_hate_waste/environmental-impact/default.asp [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018]. Dui?, N., Urbaniec, K. and Huisingh, D., 2015. Components and structures of the pillars of sustainability.Journal of cleaner production,88, pp.1-12. Haines, S., 2016.The systems thinking approach to strategic planning and management. CRC Press. Jackson, T, 2010, Prosperity without growth: Planning for a sustainable economy (THE ECONOMICS REVOLUTION). Pacific Ecologist, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 10-18. Moscardo, G 2013, Sustainability in Australian Business: Principles and practice. John Wiley and Sons Australia, Queensland. Mulligan, M 2014, An Introduction to Sustainability: Environmental, Social and Personal Perspectives, Taylor and Francis, Hoboken. Pandey, A. and Kumar, A., 2016. System Thinking Approach to Deal with Sustainability Challenges.Proceedings of International Conference on Science, Technology, Humanities and Business Management, pp.29-30. Ricketts, A 2012, The activists' handbook: a step-by-step guide to participatory democracy, Zed Books, London Robertson, M 2014 Sustainability Principles and Practice, Taylor and Francis, Hoboken Sheffield, H., 2018.Why is UK household food waste getting worse?. [online] The Independent. Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/how-the-uks-household-food-waste-problem-is-getting-worse-a7520171.html [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018]. Smithers, R., 2018.Food waste report shows UK families throw away 24 meals a month. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/nov/07/uk-households-food-waste [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018]. Sustainablefoodtrust.org, 2018.Sustainable Food Trust. [online] Sustainable Food Trust. Available at: https://sustainablefoodtrust.org/articles/why-are-uk-households-throwing-away-more-food/ [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018]. Weber, K., and Soderstrom, S. 2011, Social movements, Business and the Environment in Bansal, P Hoffman, A (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Business and the Environment, Oxford University Press, pp. 248-265 Wrap.org.uk, 2018.Econometric modelling and household food waste | WRAP UK. [online] Wrap.org.uk. Available at: https://www.wrap.org.uk/content/econometric-modelling-and-household-food-waste [Accessed 10 Apr. 2018].
Monday, December 2, 2019
Summary of Roger ChartierÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Forms and MeaningsÃ¢â¬ Essay Ã¢â¬Å"When the Ã¢â¬ËsameÃ¢â¬â¢ text is apprehended through very different mechanisms of representation, it is no longer the sameÃ¢â¬ (Chartier 2). This phrase was meant to become central in Roger ChartierÃ¢â¬â¢s Forms and Meanings: Texts, Performances, and Audiences from Codex to Computer. In his profound historical research, the author was trying to persuade his readers that when the forms of representing texts changed, the meaning of those texts changed, too. However, does it really matter, whether the text is presented in the form of a book or a hypertext?In his work, Chartier explores the impact of social and societal changes on the forms of text representation. However, as the reader expects to gain an insight into historical development of textual forms, he is rather involved into the investigation of sixteenth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s works of writing, including those of Moliere and Shakespeare. It seems that Roger Chartier has chosen a misleading title for his book: he eval uates the development of texts from Codex to Computer only in the first chapter. Moreover, Chartier is evidently biased against the implementation of electronic reading and writing media: Ã¢â¬Å"The idea of copyright is ill-suited to the means of composition afforded by electronic databasesÃ¢â¬ (Chartier 21). As a result, one may summarize ChartierÃ¢â¬â¢s book as the selection of historical researches which do not create any logical connection between the oldest and the newest forms of text representation.Chartier negatively evaluates the transition from manual to electronic writing, and implies that this transition is equal to the revolution which took place when humans have learned to write. It is difficult to argue with Chartier, when he recognizes the significance of writing to the society in general: Ã¢â¬Å"Even in our society, oral text and visual medium have not only enjoyed a continuity, but they have not resumed their status as among the principal modes of discourse wi th an even greater power of projectionÃ¢â¬ (Chartier 52). Do we have the right to state that electronic text media have created real revolution in the theory of texts? The reader is given sufficient space to choose the right answer to this question.